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Medical Education

moderated by David de Mena

Oral communications

The perception and usefulness of problem based learning among medical students

Drs Kye Mon Min Swe, Amit Bhardwaj, Kavitha Nagandla, Adinegara Bin Lutfi Abas, Nimal Kumar Sinha

Background: Problem Based Learning (PBL) has been increasing adopted in medical school worldwide. Problem based learning is an instructional strategy in which learner-centred method is utilised and “problems” are used as the focus of learning in small groups. Problem-based learning grounded in cognitive theory and with its origins in medical education, is a useful approach for teaching students how to think critically and solve problems they will encounter.
Objectives: To determine the student’s perception and usefulness of problem based learning among the clinical specialties of medical departments of Melaka Manipal Medical College.
Methodology: College based cross sectional study was conducted at Melaka Manipal Medical College, Melaka, Malaysia from August to October2012. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to final year medical students who had undergone PBL classes in all discipline. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 16 software. To assess perception, five points Likert scale was used for scoring.
Results: There were 220 students participated in this study and majority of the respondents were Malay 84(38.2%) with mean age of 23 years (SD- 0.88). Most of the students (78.3 %) perceived that facilitator motivated them to study during the session, (76.9%) perceived that PBL classes were well plan and structure and (75 %) of them perceived that PBL classes helped them to identify the weakness in learning topics and to develop communication skill. Regarding usefulness of PBL classes more than 90% of students stated that PBL classes helped them to develop team collaboration, self-directed learning, and problem solving skill.
Study Limitations: This is the cross-sessional study regarding the student’s perception on usefulness of problem based study. It will be better if we can perform intervention study regarding usefulness of the PBL classes.
Conclusions: There is strong evidence that students have positive perception on PBL classes and helped them to develop scientific basis of deep and structured learning. However, there is a need to continually evaluate teaching strategies employed within medical schools to ensure effective learning.


Mentoring undergraduate medical students: crosesstional study of mentoring program in Melaka Manipal Medical College

Drs Kye Mon Min Swe, Amit Bhardwaj

Background: Mentoring was developed in the USA in the 1970s within large private-sector corporations to support junior staff. Since the 1990s, mentoring programs have been introduced in various medical professions, most frequently in the field of nursing. Mentoring is key to a successful career in medicine. Mentor programmes are increasingly common in undergraduate medicine and dentistry and many positive effects have been reported.
Objectives: To explore how teachers in medical and dental education understand their role as mentors. To explore the perceptions of faculties regarding mentoring medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College
Methodology: Cross sectional analytic study was conducted at MMMC Melaka from February 2013 to May 2013.
Result: There were 48 faculties from Medicine and Dental (38 medicines and 10 dental) participated in this study who were teaching experiences range from 1 year to 36 year with mean 11.79 years. Regarding perception of faculties on the mentorship program, 80% of the faculties willing to discuss with the mentor regarding personal, financial issues as well as academic performance individually, 97.9% were willing to help mentees to improve academic performance and 62.5% of faculties agree that there should have a formal training prior to appointment as mentor.
Study Limitation: This study carried out at one medical university. It will be better if we can carry out all the medical universities in Malaysia.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the roles, tasks and communication of mentor and mentees should be standardized. Mentors should have a formal training prior to appointment as mentor.

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Implementation of Experimental Learning in Pathology: Impact of HIPON Project Concept and Attainment

Assoc. Prof. Dr Andreas Lazaris, Miss Olga Riccioni,Dr Maria Solomou, Mr Ilias Nikolakopoulos, Miss Evangelia Vemmou,Mr Stefanos Karamaroudis, Miss Maria-Evanthia Sotiriankou,Assoc. Prof. Dr Charalambos Vrasidas, Assoc. Prof. Dr Goce Armenski, Prof. Dr Sven Seiwerth, Prof. Dr J. Han JM Van Krieken, Prof. Dr Efstratios S. Patsouris

Background: In pathology training, one of the current, hardest and most important tasks is the conversion of the extensive amount of available data into medical experience. This challenge is linked with an innovative project entitled “ICT emodules on HistoPathology: a valuable online tool for students, researchers and professionals – HIPON”.
Aim & Objectives: The project has resulted in a multi-language e-learning platform which aims to imprint professional experience in a way that medical students, researchers and professionals can develop their own necessary practical dexterities in the huge field of modern Pathology.
Methods: The basic concept underling HIPON’s methodology is the introduction of experiential learning based on real cases.Experiential learning is a process through which students develop knowledge, skills, and values from direct experiences; the key element is the student, and knowledge is gained as a result of being personally involved in the pedagogical approach.
Results: By implementing experiential learning, there is a move to a more student-centered view of learning. The educator’s most important responsibility becomes to search out and construct meaningful educational experiences that allow students to solve real-world problems; the result is that any abstract, inert knowledge that students used to memorize from dusty textbooks comes alive as they participate in the practical application of knowledge.
Conclusion: HIPON provides an innovative platform which introduces medical experience in diagnostic practical issues of Pathology. Experiential learning offers rich opportunities for learning for participants and teachers/facilitators. Choosing powerful activities that increase learner involvement, following the experiential learning cycle in reflecting, generalizing and applying learning, giving and receiving valuable feedback in the moment, greatly increase learning retention and the quality of learning.

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Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

 moderated by Dr Shalini Malhotra, Dr Ankit Raj and Mr. Anas Rashid


Oral communications

Propagation Dynamics of Hospital Acquired – Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

Mr. Anas Rashid, Dr. Muhammad Shafiq, Engr. Aiman Rashid, Mr. Hamza Rashid, Engr. Usamah Rashid Qureshi

Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is endemic in many hospital settings which poses substantial threats and an added economic burden worldwide.
Methods: A system of mathematical models has proposed to investigate the transmission dynamics of MRSA and to determine factors that influence the prevalence of MRSA infection. These simplified and generic models utilize standard differential equations into account without introducing antibiotics to patients.
Results: Our results suggest that:
• MRSA persists in the hospital when colonized or infected patients are admitted;
• Longer the duration of treatment of infected patients, more will be the prevalence of MRSA infection;
• Longer the duration of contamination of health care workers (HCWs) and more the contact with patients, more will be the prevalence of MRSA infection;
• Possible ways to control the prevalence of MRSA infection economically include screening and isolating colonized and infected patients effectively at admission, and compliance with strict clinical hygienic instructions like hand-washing rules by HCWs.
Conclusions: The study offer an alternate approach (i.e. mathematical modelling) to investigate MRSA infection in hospital settings and the impact of incidence of infection prevalence and its spread. Our findings identify the critical influences on the prevalence of MRSA infection which may be useful in designing clinical control policies.
Assessment and Paediatric Health of Varying Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles and Patterns Due to Antibiotic Brands

Dr. Adenike Ogunshe

Background: There was an estimate that 25% of all deaths in Nigeria could be caused by antibiotic resistance if antibiotic resistance trends continue unchecked.
Aim & Objectives: To investigate the laboratory and clinical implications of antibiotics of same type but of different brands in paediatric infectious conditions of bacterial origin.
Methods/Study Design: Different brands of most-commonly administered, oral paediatric antibiotics were assayed in vitro for bacteriostatic activities on clinical bacterial strains (n = 157: isolated from faecal and vomitus specimens of children between 9 months and 1½ years of age and presenting with weaning diarrhoea) and food-borne bacterial strains (n = 107: isolated from contaminated, ready-for-consumption market sugar samples). Antibiotic susceptibility was by modification of agar well-diffusion method.
Results/Findings: None of the bacterial strains had same antibiotic susceptibility profiles / patterns recorded. susceptibility profiles for same clinical bacterial strains were 16.6%, 20.4% and 20.4 (three brands of amoxicillin 1); 11.5% and 9.6% (two brands of cefpodoxime). Overall antibiotic susceptibility profiles for same food-borne bacterial strains were- 49.0% and 47.0% (two brands of erythromycin); 65.0% and 55.0% (two brands of ampicillin+cloxacillin); 36.0% and 56.0% (two brands of ampicillin); 61.0%, 35.2%, 41.9%, 40.9% and 36.1% (six brands of amoxicillin); 51.4%, 53.3%, 51.4%, 56.5%, 50.4% and 51.4% (six brands of cotrimoxazole); 42.9%, 42.9%, 55.1%, 17.7% and 15.9% (five brands of metronidazole) respectively. At least seven different susceptibility patterns were recorded for same active-ingredient-containing antibiotics towards same bacterial strain.
Conclusion: Substandard brands of paediatric antibiotics, due to altered active ingredients are additionally responsible for antibiotic resistance in developing countries like Nigeria.


Awareness of pre-marital sexually transmitted diseases screening between medical and non-medical students in Karachi, Pakistan

Dr Hasnain Abbas Dharamshi, Dr Faizan Sheraz, Dr Ahmad Faraz, Dr Tahira Naqvi, Dr Syed Rameez Sadiq Jafri, Dr Anoop Kumar, Dr Muhammad Kashif Minhaj

Background: Sexually transmitted diseases can be transmitted by blood, sexual intercourse and body fluids. Marrying a carrier of these illnesses places the spouse and their baby at risk of acquiring infection. The risk of HIV spread has increased ten times in the existence of untreated STDs. Premarital blood screening is vital concern against STDs for students. Objective: To assess the level of awareness of pre-marital sexually transmitted diseases screening between medical and non-medical students in Karachi, Pakistan. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted by questionnaire method in 500 students (250 medical, 250 non-medicals) aged between 18 – 25 years from different institutes of Karachi. The researcher recruited 500 subjects to avoid the chances of type ii error. Questionnaire comprised of close ended questions, which enquired about the definition of STDs, content, nature and awareness of STDs, perception of the application of pre-marital STDs screening in Karachi, knowledge of STDs and the remaining questions were related to screening issues. The study design was cross sectional and sampling technique was purposive sampling. Continuous variable was presented as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables were presented as International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health Vol. 4 No. 12 (2012) 1960 proportions (%). All analyses were performed using SPSS 19. Results: Regarding STDs 74% medical & 61.6% non-medical university students were able to define it. Majority 96% medical and 94% non medical students consider HIV as STD and about Hepatitis B/C it is 84% and 57.6% respectively. Half of the students 50.2 % agreed for STD screening implementation in Pakistan. Conclusion: Pre marital screening could be extended to include a broader spectrum of health/genetic disorders and will be useful for early identification and possible intervention as well as the prevention of complications.
Preliminary study of antibacterial activity from Green and Red Seaweeds from Atacama's Coast, Chile

Prof Eduardo Orrego-Escobar

In South America has been used algae for production of alginates (Lessonia sp), carragenin (Gigartina sp.), agar (Gracilaria sp.), but is very incipient the research on biomedical applications, specifically as source of new antimicrobial drugs. This work is focused in characterization of antibacterial and antimycotic properties of principal species of macroalgaes from coast of Caldera, Atacama region. Algal material was collected from intermareal zone. In the lab was washed with sodium hypochlorite solution 0,2% and after rinsed several times with distilled water. After this, the material was dried by 96 hours to 45° Celsius. Once dry, the material was powdered and put into Soxhlet apparatus to obtain the extract organic (acetone/methanol 80/20) and hydroalcoholic (ethanol 80%). Once obtained the extracts was concentrated by vapor-rotatory until obtain a stock with concentration of 50mg/mL.
The extracts was tested against bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, was considered three serial dilutions by extracts. The result was compared with antibiotic sensi-discs as positive control and pure solvents as negative control. Rhodophytas was strongly active against Gram negative strains, in contrast Chlorophyta and some rhodophyta was active against Gram positive strains.
Phytochemical screening was performed by chromatic test. Was detected flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids as principal compounds present in extract.
Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of some clinical isolates from Al-Rass general hospital

Drs Emad Abdallah, Fiaz Ahamed

In this investigation, 98 clinical isolates of 10 different bacterial pathogens were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The sources of these isolates were urine, blood, sputum and wound swaps collected from patients from Al-Rass General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Bacterial isolates were identified and tested for susceptibility by disk diffusion method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The results have shown that, of the 98 bacterial isolates representing 9 different bacterial pathogens, 71 (72.4 %) were Gram negatives and 27 (27.6 %) were Gram positives. 21 different antibiotic disks were used. The majority of these isolates were resistant to most antibiotics tested. Accordingly, almost all the isolates were defined as multidrug resistant (MDR). Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis are among the most resistant MDR which poses a serious concern. There is a need for continuous monitoring of the susceptibility of pathogens to antibiotics prescribed in hospitals.
Detection of Antibodies Anti-T.Spiralis in some localities of Zacatecas (México)

Claudia Maldonado Tapia ,Nitzaye Bracamontes Maldonado, Susana López Bernal Susana, Jesús J Muñoz Escobedo,Elsa Chávez Guajardo, Alejandra Moreno García

Transmitted diseases are called parasites infestations in humans. Its prevalence in tropical regions often simultaneous infestation with various types of helminths. For travel and human migration, parasites spread to geographic locations where it was not known. The worldwide prevalence of helminth infection, other infections exceeds one third of the world population hosts helminth infection is estimated. Which are biologically heterogeneous sampling variation in their life cycles, body structure, development, physiology, location in the host and sensitivity to chemotherapy. Immature forms can invade the human body through the skin or via gastrointestinal and evolve fully differentiated adult parasites. According to the transmission mechanism, they can be categorized as transmissible by defecation, food, soil and animals arthropods. The Trichinellosis is endemic, cosmopolitan zoonosis, being the cause of the nematode infestation of T. spiralis. It affects wild and domestic animals primarily accidentally transmitted to human by eating meat or undercooked, infected animals from raw products. The T. spiralis is indicated in the 32 species of nematodes that parasitize man also causing public health problems, it affects the economy and Animal pig production. The disease outbreaks have increased in the world in recent decades, indicating the need for new contributions on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatments that allow new strategies to control this disease. In Zacatecas T. spiralis is endemic zoonoses reported since 1976. At present there is conducted its effective and timely diagnosis.

Maxillofacial Surgery & Dental Health

moderated by Dr John Bennet

Oral communications

Development of the Human Face

Dr Neha Abichandani

The face is the anatomical feature which is truly unique to each human. The face has a complex origin arising from a number of head structures and sensitive to a number of teratogens during critical periods of its development. The head and neck structures and are derived from pharyngeal arches 1 – 6 with the face forming from arch 1 and 2 and the frontonasal prominence. Each arch contains similar arch components derived from endoderm, mesoderm, neural crest and ectoderm.
The objectives of this lecture are to introduce the developmental embryology of the face ,to understand the formation and contribution of the pharyngeal arches to facial development and to briefly understand some abnormalities associated with the development of the face.
Telescopic overdentures -an alternative to graftingatrophic ridges-

Dr Sagar Abichandani

Rehabilitation of a partially edentulous patient can be established using a wide range of prosthetic treatment options. Depending upon the clinical need and demand, restoration of the lost structure can be achieved by using simple conventional removable partial denture, overdenture, fixed partial denture, or dental implants. An overdenture, defined as “a removable partial or complete denture that covers and rests on one or more remaining natural teeth, roots, and/or dental implants is a viable option.
The use of implant-supported overdentures has improved outcomes for edentulous patients compared with conventional dentures. These include, reduced residual ridge resorption, improved retention and support of the prostheses resulting in better quality of life, function, chewing, nutritional status and general health. A telescopic prosthesis is a more versatile alternative because the prosthesis can be repaired without reconstruction of the entire superstructure, despite a localized failure. The patient can disengage telescopic restoration with dislodgment of the outer telescopic crowns from their coping.
Also known as a double crown, crown and sleeve coping (CSC), these crowns consist of an inner or primary telescopic coping, permanently cemented to an abutment, and a congruent detachable outer or secondary telescopic crown, rigidly connected to a detachable prosthesis. The secondary crown engages the primary coping to form a telescopic unit and serves as an anchor for the remainder of the dentition
This lecture will also be showing a step-by-step approach to a case treated with telescopic overdentures for an atrophied maxillary ridge for complete understanding of this technique of overdentures.

 Pharmacology and Therapeutics

moderated by Dr Barthelemy Diouf and Dr. Abimbola Farinde


Vitamin C impact on genistein-induced cell death in prostate cancer

Toluleke Famuyiwa, Kumi Diaka. Andrew Boe, Jebelli Joubin, Erik Noonburg, Esiobu Nwadiuto

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in America. An estimated 220,800 new cases and 27,540 cancer-related deaths are expected in the year 2015. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) can promote cancer cell proliferation when they reach elevated levels. Vitamin C (Vit C) is a water-soluble antioxidant capable of inhibiting the formation of ROS. Genistein(Gn), an isoflavone found in plants, also possesses the ability to inhibit ROS formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of vitamin C on genistein-induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells and the potential pathways involve, using cell-based assays including: MTT assay to determine the effect of the various treatments (Gn, Vit C and Gn+Vit C combination) on LNCaP; Nitroblue tetrazolium assay (NBT) to assess treatment-induced intracellular ROS levels; Fluorescence microscopy to determine the mode of treatment-induced cell death. Briefly, LNCaP cells were exposed to varying concentrations of genistein (Gn10-70 uM ) and vitamin C (C10-70uM) as single treatments, and Gn-VitC combination. For Gn-VitC combination regiment, the IC50 (40uM) of the Vit C (previously determined), was used with each concentration of the genistein. Post-treatment effects on the cells were assessed after 48 hr, using the assays listed above.
The overall data from the result revealed a dose-dependent effect in all the three treatments, and apoptosis as the major mode of cell death and that vitamin C significantly augmented the effects of genistein. The combination treatment showed the most dramatic effect, causing most apoptosis. Details of the overall data implicates ROS in the treatment-induced apoptosis and significant positive impact of vitamin C on genistein treatment: an indication of the potential chemo/phyto-preventive significance of the nutrients. Further studies are in progress.
Advances in Advanced Prostate Cancer Therapies– A Review by a Patient-Scientist

Prof. Otto Sankey

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) affects one in six men, and of these, for one in six it will be fatal. Many cases are aggressive and metastasizes to bone, lymph nodes or to soft tissue organs.
Aim & Objectives: Many new therapies have been developed in recent years for advanced PCa, and far more are under development. The objective is to review these developments. The author is both a scientist and the patient.
Methods/Study Design: A review of recent literature was conducted to evaluate the potential of approved therapies (in the USA) on advanced prostate cancer. A historical search was also made.
Results/Findings: There are at least three major therapy classifications for advanced PCa.
They are (1) Interference within the androgen axis, (2) attacking cancer using the patient’s immune system, and (3) killing the cancer directly.
(1) The androgen axis focuses on disabling the androgen receptor (AR) from translocating the nuclear membrane and activating genes within DNA. Strategies include GnRH agonist or antagonists, castration, Abiraterone, Enzalutamide, and the experimental drug JQ1
(2) The immune system is used to attack PCa cells with therapeutic vaccines generally by modifying dendritic cells (DCs). Sipuleucel-T exposes a patient’s DCs to non-patient antigens. Other variations include engineered viruses (Prostvac). Attempts have also been made to use checkpoint inhibitors CTLA-4 and PD-1, and to directly engineer T-cells.
(3) Drug therapies are directed to kill cancer cells. Taxanes alter the dynamics of microtubules, which interpret cell mitosis and enhance apoptosis (Docetaxel or Cabazitaxel).
Conclusion: There are great opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in treatment for advanced PCa. New therapies produce incremental improvements, and major advances are still badly needed. Charles Huggin’s 1941 discovery that androgen ablation (castration) inhibits PCa progression remains the winner in adding years to overall survival.
Case Report: Anxiety crises and breakthrough bleeding in a 39 year old woman

Drs Esperanza Perdomo Herrera, Alba Lucia Tocino Hernandez, Sara Quintana Arroyo, Carmen Santana Acosta, Claudia Arnas Leon, Ana Delia Santana Suarez, Francisco Javier Martinez Martin

BACKGROUND: Herbal medications are often perceived as innocuous, but they have side effects and interactions.
OBJECTIVES: Presentation of a case illustrating the pitfalls of the unreported use of herbal medications.
METHODS: Review of the clinical record of our patient and of the literature.
RESULTS: Personal history: Menarche at age 12, with regular menses but dysmenorrhea and polymenorrhea. Reactive anxiety-depressive disorder. Medication: Sertraline 100 mg; Loette® (ethinyl estradiol 0.02 mg, levonorgestrel 100 mg).
Complaint: Intermenstrual spotting in the last 4 months and increased emotional lability, with episodes of tremor, chills, sweating, confusion and agitation with nausea and vomiting (initially labeled as anxiety crises).
Physical Examination: Weight 87 kg, height 167 cm, BMI 31.2 kg/m2; waist circumference 108 cm, BP 136/76 mmHg, HR 94 bpm, no additional findings.
Lab tests: Normal routine biochemistry and CBC; TSH 2.33 mcUl/mL, LH 2.04 mUI/mL, FSH 1.45 mUI/mL, 17-β-estradiol 17 pg/mL, free testosterone 0.32 ng /dL.
Follow-up: When questioned about additional drugs, she reported taking in the last 4 months a herbal antidepressant based on Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort). The patient was instructed to withdraw hypericum; both the breakthrough bleeding and the crises were resolved. Diagnosis: Breakthrough bleeding secondary to pharmacokinetic interaction between hypericum and the oral contraceptive. Serotonergic syndrome secondary to pharmacodynamic interaction between hypericum and sertraline, masquerading as anxiety crises.
CONCLUSION: Self-medication with alternative medicines is often unreported. The mistaken belief in their innocuity hinders the diagnosis of their side effects and interactions.
Serotonergic syndrome is a potentially lethal and frequently misdiagnosed condition. In patients with compatible symptoms, the treatment must be reviewed, including the use of unreported or alternative drugs.
Theoretical Quantification of Cytotoxicity and Temporal Adaptive Response Induced by Very Low Dose X-irradiation in Beta-lapachone Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells

Dr. Saheed Oluwasina Oseni, Dr. James Kumi-Diaka, Dr. Rolando Branly

BACKGROUND: NQO1 is a phase II anti-oxidant intracellular enzyme. LNCaP prostate cancer cell line is known to be NQO1-deficient in contrast to PC3 cell line. LNCaP cells are therefore known to be more resistant to NQO1-dependent cytotoxic effects of beta-lapachone (β-lap), a promising bioreductive anticancer drug. Low doses of radiation have been shown to induce adaptive responses in normal and malignant cells. This could either lead to cell survival or cell death.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to theoretically quantify the effects of very low dose x-ray radiation (VLDR) at 20 mGy/hr. in LNCaP cells before and after treatment with β-lap.
METHODOLOGY: MTT assay was used to assess the cell viability and growth inhibition in cultured LNCaP and PC3 cells exposed to both VLDR and graded doses (1-7 µM) of β-lap singly or in combination. Light and phase contrast microscopy were used to check for apoptosis and autophagy. To assess induced adaptive response, period of time between priming with VLDR and treatment with doses of β-lap was varied from 1 to 24 hours. Modified median effect equation and CompuSyn software were used to analyse and determine the combination index and dose reduction index. Time-dependent change in ROS levels was also assessed by NBT assay after exposure to VLDR.
RESULT & CONCLUSION: The data revealed that initiation of adaptive responses following pre-exposure to VLDR and β-lap are time and dose-dependent.

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Chemopreventive Effects of Magnesium Chloride Supplementation on Hormone Independent Prostate Cancer Cells

Ms. Elsa Quiroz, Dr. Saheed Oluwasina Oseni, Mr. Harris David Goldsmith, Dr. James Kumi-Diaka

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle significantly impacts the risk factors of prostate cancer, of which diet appears to be the most influential. An emerging chemopreventive approach, which involves the adequate intake of dietary constituents, has shown great potential in preventing the occurrence or progression of cancer. Magnesium is known to be an essential cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic processes, and is responsible for the regulation of various cellular reactions in the body. A plethora of studies have shown evidence that changes in the intracellular levels of magnesium could contribute to cell proliferation, and apoptosis in some normal and malignant cells.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) in DU-145 prostate cancer cells.
METHODOLOGY: Cultured DU-145 cells were subjected to graded concentrations (50-500 µM) of MgCl2 for 48 hours. The cell viability was assessed using MTT and Resazurin reduction assays. NBT assay was also used to assess the treatment-induced intracellular ROS levels. Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide (AO/EB) and Rh123/EB fluorescent stains were used to assess the cell death type and mitochondria membrane potential respectively.
RESULTS: The results revealed a dose-dependent decrease (p < 0.05) in cell viability in treated DU-145 cells after 48 hours. The NBT assay also revealed a dose dependent biphasic response (p < 0.05) in intracellular levels of ROS. There was a drop (p < 0.05) in ROS levels in all groups except at 100 uM, where ROS level was higher than the control. Apoptosis was the primary mode of cell death as observed in the fluorescence analysis.
CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that MgCl2 may be potentially chemopreventive for prostate cancer. This justifies further studies into its mechanism of action in other prostate cancer cells.

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Photodynamic Therapy application in Semi-Rigid Artificial Tissue Sensitized by Silica Nanoparticles Encapsulated Protoporphyrin IX

Dr. Ghaseb Makhadmeh, Prof Azlan Abdul Aziz, Dr. Khairunisak Abdul Razak, Prof Mohamad Al-akhras

Background/ Aims: This study involves the synthesis of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) encapsulated with Silica Nanoparticles (SiNPs) as an application for Photodynamic therapy.
Materials and Methods: Semi-rigid artificial tissues with optical features similar to human tissue were used as sample materials to ascertain the efficacy of PpIX encapsulated with SiNPs. The disparity in optical characteristics (transmittance, reflectance, scattering, and absorption) of tissues treated with encapsulated PpIX and naked PpIX under light exposure (Intensity at 408 nm ~1.19 mW/cm2) was explored. The optimal exposure times required for naked PpIX and SiNPs encapsulated PpIX to engulf Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in the artificial tissue were subsequently measured.
Results: Comparative analysis showed that the encapsulated PpIX has higher efficacy than naked PpIX. The results prove the applicability of PpIX encapsulated with SiNP on artificial tissue and possible use on human tissue.
Conclusion: The encapsulation considerably improves the efficiency and applicability of PpIX as a photodynamic agent in the treatment of artificial tissues compared to the naked PpIX. Encapsulated PpIX destroys more RBCs than the naked PpIX. In general, SiNPs exhibited a high efficacy of 91.5 % (percentage between t50 for naked and encapsulated PpIX).

exhibitor label 2
Book launch: "Case Reports. Basics and Publishing"

Drs Ricardo Correa and Christian Ortega (authors)

Closing Remarks